Acute pain is elicited by the injury of body tissues and activation of nociceptive transducers at the site of local tissue damage. This type of pain is often a reason to seek health care, and it occurs after trauma, surgical interventions, and some disease processes.
Chronic pain has been defined as "persistent or episodic pain of duration or intensity that adversely affects the function or well-being of the patient, attributable to any nonmalignant etiology" ("Practice Guidelines for Chronic Pain Management: A Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Pain Management, Chronic Pain Section"). In addition, the pain has been refractory to repeated attempts at medical management and usually has been present for at least three to six months.
Pain associated with cancer includes pain associated with disease progression as well as treatments. Pain associated with cancer can have multiple causes—namely, disease progression, treatment (e.g., neuropathic pain resulting from radiation therapy), and co-occurring diseases (e.g., arthritis). Regardless of whether the pain associated with cancer stems from disease progression, treatment, or a co-occurring disease, it may be either acute or chronic.
Spinal pain generates from multiple structures in the spine. Certain conditions may not be detectable using currently available technology or biochemical studies. However, for a structure to be implicated, it should have been shown to be a source of pain in patients, using diagnostic techniques of known reliability and validity. The structures responsible for pain in the spine, include but are not limited to, the vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, spinal cord, nerve roots, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, atlanto-occipital joints, atlanto-axial joints, and sacroiliac joints.
Postlaminectomy syndrome/failed back syndrome or pain following operative procedures of the spine, sometimes known as failed management syndrome, is becoming an increasingly common entity in modern medicine. Other spinal conditions causing pain include various degenerative disorders such as spinal stenosis, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, degenerative scoliosis, idiopathic vertebrogenic sclerosis, diffuse idiopathic spinal hyperostosis, and segmental instability. Degenerative conditions other than disc disruption and facet arthritis may contribute to approximately 5% to 10% of spinal pain.
Neural blockade is one technique used in chronic pain management. Neural blockade is the interruption of neural transmission by the injection of a local anesthetic agent or other drug. Nerve block therapy can be used to answer specific questions resulting from a careful evaluation of the patient's pain problem and to gain insight into the underlying problem causing the pain. Success of the nerve block is determined by the adequacy of interruption of nerve function, and the effect of that blockade on the patient's pain. The goal of chronic pain management is to achieve optimal pain control, recognizing that a pain-free state may not be achievable; minimize adverse outcomes; enhance functional abilities and physical and psychological well-being; and enhance the quality of life for patients with chronic pain.
The decision to treat chronic pain by invasive or destructive procedures must be based on a thorough evaluation of the patient and include a systematic assessment of the location, intensity, and pathophysiology of the pain. A detailed pain history that includes prior treatment and response to treatment is essential. A detailed physical examination and review of all pertinent diagnostic tests is also needed. This local coverage determination documents National Government Services indications and limitations for pain management treatment.
For complete coverage detail, please review each of the following sections: Indications and Limitations for Specific Types of Injections, Limitations for All Diagnostic and Therapeutic Pain Management Services. Documentation Requirements and Utilization Guidelines have been moved to Coding and Billing article A52863.
Indications and Limitations for Specific Types of Injections
TRIGGER POINT INJECTIONS
Trigger point injection is one of the many modalities utilized in the management of chronic pain. Myofascial trigger points are self-sustaining hyperirritative foci that may occur in any skeletal muscle in response to strain produced by acute or chronic overload. These trigger points produce a referred pain pattern characteristic for that individual muscle. Production of a referred pain pattern differentiates myofascial pain syndrome from tender points and fibromyalgia. Each pattern becomes part of a single muscle myofascial pain syndrome (MPS); and each of these single muscle syndromes is responsive to appropriate treatment, which includes injection therapy. Injection is achieved with needle insertion and the administration of agents such as local anesthetics.
The diagnosis of trigger points requires a detailed history and thorough physical examination. The following clinical features are present most consistently, and are helpful in making the diagnosis:
- History of onset of the painful condition, and its presumed cause (injury, sprain, etc.);
- Distribution pattern of pain consistent with the referral pattern of the trigger points;
- Restriction of range of motion with increased sensitivity to stretch;
- Muscular deconditioning in the affected area;
- Focal tenderness of a trigger point;
- Palpable taut band of muscle in which trigger point is located;
- Local taut response to snapping palpation or needle insertion; and
- Reproduction of referred pain pattern upon stimulation of the trigger point.
The goal is to treat the cause of the pain and not just the symptom of pain. Other treatment modalities include:
- Pharmacologic treatment including analgesics and medications to induce sleep and relax muscles (i.e. antidepressants, neuroleptics, or non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs); and
- Nonpharmacologic treatment modalities (i.e., osteopathic manual medicine techniques, massage, ultrasonography, application of heat or ice, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, Spray and Stretch technique); and
- For trigger points in the acute state of formation (before additional pathologic changes develop), effective treatment may be delivered through physical therapy.
After myofascial pain syndrome is established as described above, trigger point injection may be indicated when noninvasive medical management is not successful or as first line treatment. Additionally, trigger point injection is indicated when the movement of a joint is mechanically blocked as is the case of the coccygeus muscle.
Only one trigger point injection procedure should be reported on any particular day, no matter how many sites or regions are injected.
The local anesthetic administered in conjunction with trigger point injections is included in the practice expense for these procedures.
Trigger point injections used on a routine basis, e.g., on a regular periodic and continuous basis, for patients with chronic non-malignant pain syndromes are not considered medically necessary.
Only injections of local anesthetics and corticosteroids are covered. Injections consisting of only saline and/or botanical substances are not supported in the peer-reviewed literature and are not considered medically necessary. Prior to January 21, 2020, dry needling is not a covered service. Effective January 21, 2020, Medicare will cover all types of acupuncture including dry needling for chronic low back pain within specific guidelines in accordance with NCD 30.3.3.
INJECTION OF TENDON SHEATHS, LIGAMENTS, GANGLION CYSTS, CARPAL AND TARSAL TUNNELS
Injection into tendon sheaths, ligaments, ganglion cysts, tarsal or carpal tunnel is sometimes indicated to provide relief of pain and to reduce the inflammation in these structures when response to conservative measures has failed or is not indicated.
For the purposes of clarity the following descriptions are offered for each term:
Ligament - A band of tissue that connects bones.
Tendon - A fibrous cord of connective tissue attaching a muscle to a bone or other structure. A tendon sheath is the lining enclosing a tendon. It facilitates movement around the tendon.
Ganglion cyst - These knot like masses are non-cancerous and fluid filled cysts that arise from the ligaments, joint linings, or tendon sheaths.
Carpal tunnel - This is a passageway that runs from the forearm through the wrist. The median nerve and nine tendons pass through the tunnel.
Tarsal tunnel - A passageway on the medial side of the tarsus. The posterior tibial nerve passes through the tunnel.
Indications for Tendon Sheath, Ligament, Ganglion Cysts, Carpal and Tarsal Tunnel Injections:
Injection into tendon sheaths, their origins or insertions, ligaments, or ganglion cysts is indicated to relieve substantial pain and/or significant functional disability that results from inflammation or other pathological changes in those structures. Proper use of this modality should be part of an overall management plan including diagnostic evaluation in order to clearly identify and properly treat the primary cause.
Other conservative therapy has not provided acceptable relief, is contraindicated, or not appropriate.
There is a reasonable likelihood that injection will significantly improve the patient's pain and/or functional disability.
Injection of a carpal tunnel may be indicated for the patient with mild to moderate symptoms when pharmaceutical and other conservative measures have failed or are not otherwise indicated.
Injection of the tarsal tunnel may be indicated for conservative management of tarsal tunnel syndrome.
Limitations for Tendon Sheath, Ligament, Ganglion Cysts, Carpal and Tarsal Tunnel Injections:
When a given specific tendon, ligament, tunnel, or cyst is injected, it will be considered one injection service regardless of the number of injections administered at that specific anatomical location on a single date of service.
SACROILIAC (SI) JOINT INJECTIONS
The sacroiliac (SI) joint is a diarthrodial, synovial joint which is formed by the articular surfaces of the sacrum and iliac bones. The SI joints bear the weight of the trunk and as a result are subject to the development of strain and/or pain.
Indications for Sacroiliac (SI) Joint Injections:
Sacroiliac (SI) joint injections would be considered medically reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis and/or treatment of chronic low back pain that is considered to be secondary to suspected sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Diagnostic and therapeutic injections of the SI joint would not likely be performed unless conservative therapy and noninvasive treatments (i.e., rest, physical therapy, NSAIDs, etc.) have failed.
Diagnostic blocks of a sacroiliac joint can be performed to determine whether it is the source of low back pain. Arthropathy (joint disease) is diagnosed through a double-comparative local anesthetic blockade of the joint by the intra-articular injection of a small volume of local anesthetics of different durations of actions. A positive response should demonstrate initial pain relief greater than or equal to (> /=) 75% - 100% and the ability to perform previously painful maneuvers. Steroids may be injected in addition to the local anesthetic.
Therapeutic sacroiliac (SI) joint injections of an anesthetic and/or steroid to block the joint for immediate, and potentially long lasting, pain relief are considered medically reasonable and necessary if it is determined that the SI joint is the source of pain in the lower back. The local anesthetic used for the procedure should not be billed.
SI joint arthrography and/or therapeutic injection of an anesthetic/steroid should only be reported when imaging confirmation of intra-articular needle positioning with applicable radiological and/or fluoroscopic procedures have been performed.
Limitations for Sacroiliac (SI) Joint Injections:
If previous diagnostic or therapeutic SI injections of an anesthetic and/or steroid to block the joint for immediate, and potentially long lasting, pain relief have not effectively relieved the pain, further injections would not be considered medically necessary.
Radiofrequency ablation used for sacro-iliac joint pain is considered not medically necessary/investigational whether performed using traditional, cooled, or pulsed radiofrequency.
LIMITATIONS FOR ALL PAIN MANAGEMENT SERVICES
General anesthesia or monitored anesthesia care (MAC) is rarely, if ever required for injections addressed in this policy. In fact, general anesthesia is contraindicated for diagnostic blocks (Manchikanti et al, 2005). Further, monitored anesthesia care or heavy sedation may provide false-positive results.
The CMS Manual System, Pub. 100-8, Program Integrity Manual, Chapter 13, Section 5.1 (http://www.cms.hhs.gov/manuals/downloads/pim83c13.pdf) states that "reasonable and necessary" services are "ordered and/or furnished by qualified personnel." Services will be considered medically reasonable and necessary only if performed by appropriately trained providers.
Patient safety and quality of care mandate that healthcare professionals who perform spinal pain management procedures are appropriately trained and/or credentialed by a formal residency/fellowship program and/or are certified by either an accredited and nationally recognized organization or by a post-graduate training course accredited by an established national accrediting body or accredited professional training program. (At a minimum, training must cover and develop an understanding of anatomy and drug pharmacodynamics and kinetics as well as proficiency in diagnosis and management of disease, the technical performance of the procedure and utilization of the required associated imaging modalities). A practitioner who works in a hospital or ASC facility at any time should be credentialed by the facility for any procedure also performed in an office setting.