Local Coverage Article Billing and Coding

Billing and Coding: Hydration Services

A52732

Expand All | Collapse All

Contractor Information

Article Information

General Information

Article ID
A52732
Article Title
Billing and Coding: Hydration Services
Article Type
Billing and Coding
Original Effective Date
10/01/2015
Revision Effective Date
05/07/2020
Revision Ending Date
N/A
Retirement Date
N/A
AMA CPT / ADA CDT / AHA NUBC Copyright Statement

CPT codes, descriptions and other data only are copyright 2022 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Applicable FARS/HHSARS apply.

Fee schedules, relative value units, conversion factors and/or related components are not assigned by the AMA, are not part of CPT, and the AMA is not recommending their use. The AMA does not directly or indirectly practice medicine or dispense medical services. The AMA assumes no liability for data contained or not contained herein.

Current Dental Terminology © 2022 American Dental Association. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2022, the American Hospital Association, Chicago, Illinois. Reproduced with permission. No portion of the American Hospital Association (AHA) copyrighted materials contained within this publication may be copied without the express written consent of the AHA. AHA copyrighted materials including the UB‐04 codes and descriptions may not be removed, copied, or utilized within any software, product, service, solution or derivative work without the written consent of the AHA. If an entity wishes to utilize any AHA materials, please contact the AHA at 312‐893‐6816.

Making copies or utilizing the content of the UB‐04 Manual, including the codes and/or descriptions, for internal purposes, resale and/or to be used in any product or publication; creating any modified or derivative work of the UB‐04 Manual and/or codes and descriptions; and/or making any commercial use of UB‐04 Manual or any portion thereof, including the codes and/or descriptions, is only authorized with an express license from the American Hospital Association. The American Hospital Association (the "AHA") has not reviewed, and is not responsible for, the completeness or accuracy of any information contained in this material, nor was the AHA or any of its affiliates, involved in the preparation of this material, or the analysis of information provided in the material. The views and/or positions presented in the material do not necessarily represent the views of the AHA. CMS and its products and services are not endorsed by the AHA or any of its affiliates.

CMS National Coverage Policy

Internet Only Manual Pub 100-8; Medicare Program Integrity Manual Chapter 3, Section 3.6.2.2 - Reasonable and Necessary Criteria

Article Guidance

Article Text

Noridian Medical Review (MR) has observed errors in billing for intravenous (IV) hydration services. This article is to assist in better understanding the proper usage of the below codes for billing and coding purposes.

CPT Definition:

  • 96360: Intravenous Infusion, hydration; initial, 31 minutes to 1 hour
  • 96361: Intravenous Infusion, hydration; each additional hour (list separately in addition to code for primary procedure)

These codes are intended to report a hydration IV infusion consisting of pre-packaged fluid with or without electrolytes (e.g. normal saline, D5-1/2 normal saline+30mEq KCl/liter) and are not used to report infusion of drugs or other substances.

Hydration Defined:

The hydration codes 96360 and 96361 were developed to report specific therapeutic interventions undertaken when a patient presents with dehydration and volume loss requiring clinically necessary intravenous fluid.

  1. The necessity for hydration should be supported in the medical record.

Documentation would include but is not limited to:

A. Clinical assessment, typically on the same date of service, of the patient’s anticipated fluid needs. This can be demonstrated from the patient’s history, clinical examination, and pertinent laboratory testing to support the need for IV hydration therapy as reasonable and necessary for the patient’s treatment or diagnosis.

    1. Documentation of the assessment should describe symptoms warranting hydration, such as those associated with dehydration, the inability to ingest fluids or clear clinical contraindication to oral intake, abnormal fluid losses, abnormal vital signs, and/or abnormal laboratory studies, such as an elevated BUN, creatinine, glucose or lactic acid.
    2. Nausea itself does not necessarily indicate fluid volume depletion nor support necessity of fluid repletion.

B. These codes are not intended to be reported/billed by the physician or other qualified healthcare professional in the facility setting, as these codes most likely represent facility charges with applicable reimbursement through the respective fee schedule. However, in the physician office setting (example, Place of Service 11), the physician may report these codes when the physician’s clinical staff or the physician administers the fluids.

C. For facility reporting, an initial infusion is predicated on using a hierarchy.

D. When administering multiple infusions (e.g. IV fluids and subsequent IV chemotherapy infusion on same date of service), only one primary infusion code should be reported for a given date, unless protocol requires that two separate IV sites must be used.

E. Hydration cannot be reported concurrently with any other infusion or drug administration service.

F. The definition of infusion time is inherent and presented in the guidelines for these codes. In other words, a minimum time duration of 31 minutes of hydration infusion is required to report the service.

G. Consequently, infusion time is calculated from the time the administration commences (i.e. the infusion starts dripping) to when it ends (i.e. the infusion stops dripping).

H. In accordance with Medicare Reasonable and Necessary Criteria, (Medicare Program Integrity Manual, Chapter 3, Section 3.6.2.2), the benefit must meet but does not exceed the beneficiary’s medical need, and as such, IV fluids should be avoided if not deemed clinically necessary.

  1. For example, although some conditions may warrant intravenous rehydration, if documentation supports the same benefit could be achieved by oral hydration, IV hydration would not be considered reasonable and necessary.
  2. However, it is understood that there are clinical scenarios in which the patient's need for hydration cannot wait for oral trials, even if an option. The intent should be understood within the body of documentation.

I. Examples of Additional Payable Scenarios:

  1. If therapeutic fluid administration is medically necessary:
    1. for the correction of dehydration or prevention of nephrotoxicity immediately before or after transfusion, chemotherapy, or administration of potentially nephrotoxic medications.
    2. immediately before or after IV contrast infusion for a diagnostic procedure in a patient with renal insufficiency.

J. Non-payable scenarios : The following infusion circumstances do not represent hydration and should not be reported using any of these CPT codes:

  1. If the sole purpose of the intravenous fluid is to maintain patency (i.e. keep open) of an IV line prior to, during, or subsequent to a chemotherapeutic or therapeutic infusion, or transfusion.
  2. If used as “maintenance” IV therapy replacing normal sensible and insensible fluid losses, not losses associated with a pathological condition.
  3. When the purpose of the infusion is to accommodate a therapeutic IV piggyback through the same IV access to safely infuse the agent (e.g. IV fluids infused simultaneously with drug administration).
  4. If the fluid is used as the diluent to mix the drug (i.e. the fluid is the vehicle in which the drug is administered).
  5. Hydration that is integral to the performance of a surgical procedure to establish an initial and underlying IV flow for a diagnostic or therapeutic infusion is not separately billable (e.g. IV fluids administered preoperatively, intraoperatively, and/or postoperatively).
  6. Routine administration of IV fluids, pre/post operatively while the patient is NPO for example, without documentation supporting signs and/or symptoms including those of dehydration or fluid loss is not supported as medically necessary.
  7. Infusion of IV fluids with electrolytes for the purpose of treating an electrolyte deficiency (e.g. hypokalemic patient being treated specifically for low potassium level for which 20 mEq of KCL is added to an IV fluid).

In conclusion, the main question that should be asked when considering billing for 96360 and 96361 is whether IV hydration is an appropriate, accepted standard of medical practice as a diagnostic or specific treatment for a beneficiary’s condition,is one that meets, BUT does NOT exceed the beneficiary’s medical need, and cannot be met with oral hydration.

Note: It is understood that depending on the clinical scenario, upon presentation, an IV line may be established, fluids initiated, labs drawn and sent for evaluation and imaging completed with examinations. Although it may be reasonable to start fluids upon presentation, in order to bill the IV hydration codes, the medical necessity for the hydration services must also be supported. If the final clinical assessment does not support intravenous hydration was necessary for beneficiary’s medical needs, hydration codes should not be billed

References:

  1. CPT Assistant Coding Update: Infusion/Injection services; February 2009; Volume 19, Issue 2, pages 17-21).

  2. CPT Assistant Coding Clarification; Facility reporting-Multiple Infusions (Codes 96360, 96361, 96365-96367); December, 2011; Volume 21, Issue 12, pages 3-5).

  3. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guidelines; Intravenous Fluid Therapy in Adults in Hospital; December, 2013.

  4. 2020 CMS NCCI Policy Manual for MC Services; Ch. 11, Medicine E/M Services CPT codes 90000-99999 and corresponding CMS NCCI edits.

     5. Medicare Program Integrity Manual, Chapter 3, Section 3.6.2.2 - Reasonable and Necessary Criteria

Coding Information

CPT/HCPCS Codes

Group 1

(2 Codes)
Group 1 Paragraph

N/A

Group 1 Codes
CodeDescription
96360 INTRAVENOUS INFUSION, HYDRATION; INITIAL, 31 MINUTES TO 1 HOUR
96361 INTRAVENOUS INFUSION, HYDRATION; EACH ADDITIONAL HOUR (LIST SEPARATELY IN ADDITION TO CODE FOR PRIMARY PROCEDURE)

CPT/HCPCS Modifiers

Group 1

Group 1 Paragraph

N/A

Group 1 Codes

N/A

ICD-10-CM Codes that Support Medical Necessity

Group 1

Group 1 Paragraph

N/A

Group 1 Codes

N/A

ICD-10-CM Codes that DO NOT Support Medical Necessity

Group 1

Group 1 Paragraph

N/A

Group 1 Codes

N/A

ICD-10-PCS Codes

N/A

Additional ICD-10 Information

N/A

Bill Type Codes

Contractors may specify Bill Types to help providers identify those Bill Types typically used to report this service. Absence of a Bill Type does not guarantee that the article does not apply to that Bill Type. Complete absence of all Bill Types indicates that coverage is not influenced by Bill Type and the article should be assumed to apply equally to all claims.

CodeDescription
999x Not Applicable

Revenue Codes

Contractors may specify Revenue Codes to help providers identify those Revenue Codes typically used to report this service. In most instances Revenue Codes are purely advisory. Unless specified in the article, services reported under other Revenue Codes are equally subject to this coverage determination. Complete absence of all Revenue Codes indicates that coverage is not influenced by Revenue Code and the article should be assumed to apply equally to all Revenue Codes.

N/A


N/A

Other Coding Information

Group 1

Group 1 Paragraph

N/A

Group 1 Codes

N/A

Revision History Information

Revision History DateRevision History NumberRevision History Explanation
05/07/2020 R7

In the Article Text, provided clarification under the Documentation would include but is not limited to:

"B. These codes are not intended to be reported/billed by the physician or other qualified healthcare professional in the facility setting, as these codes most likely represent facility charges with applicable reimbursement through the respective fee schedule. However, in the physician office setting (example, Place of Service 11), the physician may report these codes when the physician’s clinical staff or the physician administers the fluids."

05/07/2020 R6

The effective date of this article is being changed for Revision Number 4 and 5. The effective date should have been 05/07/2020 instead of 01/20/2017.

01/20/2017 R5

Removed outdated references, clarified the language in the article and added reference to the PIM – Reasonable and Necessary Criteria.

01/20/2017 R4

Clarified documentation criteria needed to support the service was reasonable and necessary and added the definition of Hydration.

01/20/2017 R3 JFA and JFB article A52732 updated to clarify intravenous hydration services must be ordered by a physician or qualified non-physician practitioner and the reasonable and necessary criteria for intravenous hydration services. JF Part B (JFB) Local Coverage article A54636 is being combined into the updated JF Part A (JFA) article A52732. Both JFB and JFA contract numbers will have the same final MCD article number A52732.
10/01/2015 R2 Key Words were added to enhance access to article information
10/01/2015 R1 The title and article were revised for clarity.

Associated Documents

Related Local Coverage Documents
N/A
Related National Coverage Documents
N/A
Statutory Requirements URLs
N/A
Rules and Regulations URLs
Program Integrity Manual 100-8 Chapter 3, Section 3.6.2.2
Description: Reasonable and Necessary Criteria
CMS Manual Explanations URLs
N/A
Other URLs
N/A
Public Versions
Updated On Effective Dates Status
09/13/2022 05/07/2020 - N/A Currently in Effect You are here
08/23/2022 05/07/2020 - N/A Superseded View
Some older versions have been archived. Please visit the MCD Archive Site to retrieve them.

Keywords

  • 96360
  • 96361
  • Intravenous
  • Hydration
  • Infusion
  • Dehydration
  • Fluid loss
  • Emergency Medicine