Local Coverage Determination (LCD)

Cataract Extraction

L33558

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Proposed LCD
Proposed LCDs are works in progress that are available on the Medicare Coverage Database site for public review. Proposed LCDs are not necessarily a reflection of the current policies or practices of the contractor.

Document Note

Note History

Contractor Information

LCD Information

Document Information

Source LCD ID
N/A
LCD ID
L33558
Original ICD-9 LCD ID
Not Applicable
LCD Title
Cataract Extraction
Proposed LCD in Comment Period
N/A
Source Proposed LCD
DL33558
Original Effective Date
For services performed on or after 10/01/2015
Revision Effective Date
For services performed on or after 09/19/2019
Revision Ending Date
N/A
Retirement Date
N/A
Notice Period Start Date
09/16/2016
Notice Period End Date
10/31/2016
AMA CPT / ADA CDT / AHA NUBC Copyright Statement

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Fee schedules, relative value units, conversion factors and/or related components are not assigned by the AMA, are not part of CPT, and the AMA is not recommending their use. The AMA does not directly or indirectly practice medicine or dispense medical services. The AMA assumes no liability for data contained or not contained herein.

Current Dental Terminology © 2023 American Dental Association. All rights reserved.

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Making copies or utilizing the content of the UB‐04 Manual, including the codes and/or descriptions, for internal purposes, resale and/or to be used in any product or publication; creating any modified or derivative work of the UB‐04 Manual and/or codes and descriptions; and/or making any commercial use of UB‐04 Manual or any portion thereof, including the codes and/or descriptions, is only authorized with an express license from the American Hospital Association. The American Hospital Association (the "AHA") has not reviewed, and is not responsible for, the completeness or accuracy of any information contained in this material, nor was the AHA or any of its affiliates, involved in the preparation of this material, or the analysis of information provided in the material. The views and/or positions presented in the material do not necessarily represent the views of the AHA. CMS and its products and services are not endorsed by the AHA or any of its affiliates.

Issue

Issue Description
Issue - Explanation of Change Between Proposed LCD and Final LCD

CMS National Coverage Policy

Language quoted from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) and coverage provisions in interpretive manuals is italicized throughout the policy. NCDs and coverage provisions in interpretive manuals are not subject to the Local Coverage Determination (LCD) Review Process (42 CFR 405.860[b] and 42 CFR 426 [Subpart D]). In addition, an administrative law judge may not review an NCD. See §1869(f)(1)(A)(i) of the Social Security Act.

Unless otherwise specified, italicized text represents quotation from one or more of the following CMS sources:

Title XVIII of the Social Security Act (SSA):

Section 1862(a)(1)(A) excludes expenses incurred for items or services which are not reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis or treatment of illness or injury or to improve the functioning of a malformed body member.

Section 1833(e) prohibits Medicare payment for any claim which lacks the necessary information to process the claim.

Code of Federal Regulations:

42 CFR Section 410.32 indicates that diagnostic tests may only be ordered by the treating physician (or other treating practitioner acting within the scope of his or her license and Medicare requirements who furnishes a consultation or treats a beneficiary for a specific medical problem and who uses the results in the management of the beneficiary's specific medical problem. Tests not ordered by the physician (or other qualified non-physician provider) who is treating the beneficiary are not reasonable and necessary (see Sec. 411.15(k)(1) of this chapter).

CMS Publications:

CMS Publication 100-02, Medicare Benefit Policy Manual, Chapter 15, Part 1:

    260 Ambulatory Surgical Center Services

CMS Publication 100-03, Medicare National Coverage Determinations NCD) Manual, Chapter 1, Part 1:

      10.1 Use of Visual Tests Prior to and General Anesthesia during Cataract Surgery

 

      80.8 Endothelial Cell Photography

 

    80.10 Phaco-Emulsification Procedure - Cataract Extraction

Coverage Guidance

Coverage Indications, Limitations, and/or Medical Necessity

Abstract:
A cataract is an opacity or cloudiness in the lens of the eye(s), blocking the passage of light through the lens, sometimes resulting in impaired vision. Cataract development occurs in 60% of adults 65 years of age or greater. There are multiple factors associated with cataract development. Some causes of cataracts may include: ultraviolet-ß radiation exposure, complications of diabetes, drug and/or alcohol use, smoking, and the natural process of aging. Medicare coverage for cataract extraction and cataract extraction with intraocular lens implant is based on services that are reasonable and medically necessary for the treatment of beneficiaries with cataract(s). This local coverage determination (LCD)defines coverage and describes criteria necessary to justify the performance of cataract extraction(s) or other select lensectomies.

Indications and Limitations:
Lens extraction is considered medically necessary and therefore covered by Medicare when one (or more) of the following conditions or circumstances exists:

  • Cataract causing symptomatic (i.e., causing the patient to seek medical attention) impairment of visual function not correctable with a tolerable change in glasses or contact lenses resulting in specific activity limitations and/or participation restrictions including, but not limited to reading, viewing television, driving, or meeting vocational or recreational needs. Surgery is not deemed to be medically necessary purely on the basis of lens opacity in the absence of symptoms. Also other eye disease(s) including, but not limited to macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy, have been ruled out as the primary cause of decreased visual function.

  • Concomitant intraocular disease (e.g., diabetic retinopathy or intraocular tumor) requiring monitoring or treatment that is prevented by the presence of cataract.

  • Cataract interfering with the performance of vitreoretinal surgery (e.g., performance of surgery for far peripheral vitreoretinal dissection and excision of the vitreous base, as in cases of proliferative vitreoretinopathy, complicated retinal detachments, and severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy).

  • Lens-induced disease threatening vision or ocular health (including, but not limited to, phacomorphic or phacolytic glaucoma)

  • High probability of accelerating cataract development as a result of a concomitant or subsequent procedure (e.g., pars plana vitrectomy, iridocyclectomy, procedure for ocular trauma) and treatments such as external beam irradiation

  • Intolerable anisometropia or aniseikonia uncorrectable with glasses or contact lenses that exists as a result of lens extraction in the first eye (despite satisfactorily corrected monocular visual acuity).



Visual Acuity
The Snellen visual acuity chart is an excellent way of measuring distance refractive error (e.g. myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) in healthy eyes, and is in wide clinical use. However, testing only with high contrast letters viewed in dark room conditions will underestimate the functional impairments caused by some cataracts in common real life situations such as day or nighttime glare conditions, poor contrast environments or reading, halos and starbursts at night, and impaired optical quality causing monocular diplopia and ghosting.

While a single arbitrary objective measure might be desirable a specific Snellen visual acuity alone can neither rule in, nor rule out the need for surgery. It should be recorded and considered in the context of the patient’s visual impairment and other ocular findings.

Bilateral Eye Surgery
If the decision to perform cataract extraction in both eyes is made prior to the first cataract extraction, the documentation must support the medical necessity for each procedure to be performed. Prior to admitting to surgery on the second eye, the AAO Preferred Practice Pattern recommends that the patient and ophthalmologist should discuss the benefit, risk and timing of second-eye surgery when they have had the opportunity to evaluate the results of surgery on the first eye.

Immediate, sequential, bilateral surgery has advantages and disadvantages that must be carefully weighed and discussed by the surgeon and patient. Foremost is the risk of potentially blinding complications in both eyes. For this reason the second eye should be treated like the eye of a different patient using separate povidone iodine prepping, draping, instrumentation, and supplies such as irrigating solutions, OVD, and medications. According to the AAO Preferred Practice Pattern, "reported indications for immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery include the need for general anesthesia in the presence of bilateral visually significant cataracts, rare occasions where travel for surgery and follow-up care is a significant hardship for the patient, and when the health of the patient may limit surgery to one surgical encounter."

Complex Cataract Surgery 
Complex cataract surgery differentiates the extraordinary work performed during the intraoperative or postoperative periods in a subset of cataract operations including, and not limited to, the following:

    • A miotic pupil which will not dilate sufficiently to allow adequate visualization of the lens in the posterior chamber of the eye and which requires the insertion of four (4) iris retractors through four (4) additional incisions, use of an iris dilator device, a sector iridectomy with subsequent suture repair of iris sphincter, synechiolysis utilizing pupillary stretch maneuvers or sphincterotomies created with scissors.

 

    • The presence of a disease state that produces lens support structures that are abnormally weak or absent. This requires the need to support the lens implant with permanent intraocular sutures and/or a capsular support ring (approved by the FDA) may be necessary to allow placement of an intraocular lens.

 

    • Pediatric cataract surgery may be more difficult intraoperatively because of an anterior capsule which is more difficult to tear, cortex which is more difficult to remove, and the need for a primary posterior capsulotomy or capsulorhexis. Furthermore, there is additional postoperative work associated with pediatric cataract surgery.

 

  • Extraordinary work may occur during the postoperative period. This is the case with pediatric cases mentioned above and very rarely when there is extreme postoperative inflammation and pain.










Summary of Evidence

N/A

Analysis of Evidence (Rationale for Determination)

N/A

Proposed Process Information

Synopsis of Changes
Changes Fields Changed
N/A
Associated Information
Sources of Information
Bibliography
Open Meetings
Meeting Date Meeting States Meeting Information
N/A
Contractor Advisory Committee (CAC) Meetings
Meeting Date Meeting States Meeting Information
N/A
MAC Meeting Information URLs
N/A
Proposed LCD Posting Date
Comment Period Start Date
Comment Period End Date
Reason for Proposed LCD
Requestor Information
This request was MAC initiated.
Requestor Name Requestor Letter
View Letter
N/A
Contact for Comments on Proposed LCD

Coding Information

Bill Type Codes

Code Description
N/A

Revenue Codes

Code Description
N/A

CPT/HCPCS Codes

Group 1

Group 1 Paragraph

N/A

Group 1 Codes

N/A

N/A

ICD-10-CM Codes that Support Medical Necessity

Group 1

Group 1 Paragraph:

N/A

Group 1 Codes:

N/A

N/A

ICD-10-CM Codes that DO NOT Support Medical Necessity

Group 1

Group 1 Paragraph:

N/A

Group 1 Codes:

N/A

N/A

Additional ICD-10 Information

General Information

Associated Information
N/A
Sources of Information
N/A
Bibliography

This bibliography presents those sources that were obtained during the development of this policy. National Government Services is not responsible for the continuing viability of Web site addresses listed below.

American Academy of Ophthalmology Cataract and Anterior Segment Panel. Preferred Practice Pattern® Guidelines. Cataract in the Adult Eye. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2011. Available at: www.aao.org/ppp. Accessed 3/24/2016.

Revision History Information

Revision History Date Revision History Number Revision History Explanation Reasons for Change
09/19/2019 R10

This LCD was converted to the new "no-codes" format. There has been no change in coverage with this LCD revision.

  • Revisions Due To Code Removal
08/01/2019 R9

Consistent with Change Request 10901, all coding information, National coverage provisions, and Associated Information (Documentation Requirements, Utilization Guidelines) have been removed from the LCD and placed in the related Billing and Coding Article, A56544. There has been no change in coverage with this LCD revision.

  • Provider Education/Guidance
11/01/2016 R8 ICD-10-CM code H25.89* and an explanatory note "*H25.89 may be used if the operative note indicates dye was used to stain the anterior capsule." were added to ICD-10 Codes that Support Medical Necessity section, Group 2, effective for services rendered on or after 10/01/2016.
  • Provider Education/Guidance
11/01/2016 R7 Added the following ICD-10-CM codes to the ICD-10 Codes that Support Medical Necessity section during the notice period, effective for services rendered on or after 10/1/2016:
Group1- H25.013, H25.033, H25.043, H25.23, H25.813, H26.003, H26.013, H26.033, H26.043, H26.053, H26.063, H26.103, H26.113, H26.133, H26.213, H26.223, H26.233, H26.33, H26.493, H27.113, H27.123, H27.133, H33.003, H33.013, H33.023, H33.033, H33.043, H33.053, H33.43, H35.043, H35.073, H35.073, H35.23, H35.343, H35.373, H43.13, H59.023.
Group 2- H21.223, H21.263, H21.533, H21.563, H21.82, H43.823, H57.053.
  • Revisions Due To ICD-10-CM Code Changes
11/01/2016 R6 Under the Indications and Limitations of Coverage section, simplified and clarified criteria by eliminating generalized statements and by eliminating the explicit Snellen metric requirement.

Under the Documentation Requirements section related to CPT code 66982:
- deleted bullet #1
- deleted the wording, “for partial occlusion of the pupil” in bullets #3 and 4
- added the wording, “or more”, related to cornea incisions in bullet #3 that provides examples of devices or techniques considered reasonable and necessary when rendering complex cataract extraction (CPT code 66982).

Added multiple 2017 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes to Group 1.
  • Provider Education/Guidance
10/01/2015 R5 Added ICD-10-CM diagnosis code H25.13 to the Group 1 ICD-10 Codes that Support Medical Necessity section, effective for services rendered on or after 10/01/2015.
  • Request for Coverage by a Practitioner (Part B)
10/01/2015 R4 LCD updated to reflect administrative changes.
  • Provider Education/Guidance
10/01/2015 R3 Corrected typographical error in Indications of Coverage section
  • Typographical Error
10/01/2015 R2 Added the following language to the Indications and Limitations of Coverage section: "Immediate, sequential, bilateral surgery has advantages and disadvantages that must be carefully weighed and discussed by the surgeon and patient. Foremost is the risk of potentially blinding complications in both eyes. For this reason the second eye should be treated like the eye of a different patient using separate povidone iodine prepping, draping, instrumentation, and supplies such as irrigating solutions, OVD, and medications."

  • Provider Education/Guidance
10/01/2015 R1 Deleted the following language from the Indications and Limitations of Coverage section: “Bilateral cataract extraction should not be performed on both eyes on the same day because of the potential for bilateral visual loss. If the first cataract extraction is performed and a subsequent contralateral cataract extraction is considered, the criteria for coverage of the procedure in the contralateral eye are the same as the criteria for the first cataract extraction.”

Added the following language to the Indications and Limitations of Coverage section: “Immediate, sequential, bilateral surgery has advantages and disadvantages that must be carefully weighed and discussed by the surgeon and patient. Foremost is the risk of potentially blinding complications in both eyes. For this reason the second eye should be treated like the eye of a different patient using separate povidone iodine prepping, draping, instrumentation, and supplies such as irrigating solutions, OVD, and medications.”
  • Provider Education/Guidance
N/A

Associated Documents

Attachments
N/A
Related National Coverage Documents
N/A
Public Versions
Updated On Effective Dates Status
09/11/2019 09/19/2019 - N/A Currently in Effect You are here
Some older versions have been archived. Please visit the MCD Archive Site to retrieve them.

Keywords

  • eye
  • ophthalmology
  • complex cataract
  • epinephrine

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