This bibliography presents those sources that were obtained during the development of this policy. National Government Services is not responsible for the continuing viability of Web site addresses listed below.
ACC/AHA Task Force Report, ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Clinical Application of Echocardiography, JACC. 1990;16(7):1505-28.
AdminaStar Federal and other Medicare contractors' policies.
AHA Medical/Scientific Statement (Feinberg WM, chair) Guidelines for the management of transient ischemic attacks. From the ad hoc committee on guidelines for the management of transient ischemic attacks of the stroke council of the American Heart Association. Stroke. 1994;25:1320-1335.
Ansari A, Transesophageal two-dimensional echocardiography: current perspectives. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1993;35(5):349-397.
Besson G, Bogousslavsky J, Hommel M, et al. Patent foramen ovale in young stroke patients with mitral valve prolapse. Acta Neurol Scand. 1994;89:23-26.
Biner S, Rafique AM, Kar S, et al. Live three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography-guided transcatheter closure of a mitral paraprosthetic leak by amplatzer occluder. JASE. 2008;21(11):1282.e7-1282.e9. (published online 15 August 2008).
Blanchard D, Kimura BJ, Dittrich HC, DeMaria AN. Transesophageal echocardiography of the aorta. JAMA. 1994;272(7):546-551.
Braunwald E. ed. Heart Disease, A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 4th ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA. 1992.
Carrier Medical Directors' Cardiology Clinical Workgroup.
Cerebral Embolism Task Force. Cardiogenic brain embolism. Arch Neurol. 1986;43:71-84.
Cheitlin MD, Alpert JS, Armstrong WF, et al. ACC/AHA Guidelines for the clinical application of echocardiography: executive summary. a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Clinical Application of Echocardiography). J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;29:862-79.
Cheitlin MD, Armstrong WF, Aurigemma GP, et al. ACC/AHA/ASE 2003 guideline update for the clinical application of echocardiography: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/ASE Committee to Update the 1997 Guidelines for the Clinical Application of Echocardiography). 2003. http://www.acc.org/clinical/guidelines/echo/index.pdf. Accessed: March 14, 2006.Updated URL: http://www.acc.org/qualityandscience/clinical/guidelines/echo/index.pdf. Accessed: October 27, 2006.
Cigarroa JE, Isselbacher EM, DeSanctis RW, Eagle KA. Diagnostic imaging in the evaluation of suspected aortic dissection. Old standards and new directions. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(1):35-43.
Daniel WG, Mhgge A. Transesophageal echocardiography. N Engl J Med. 1995;332(19):1268-1279.
Daniel WG. Transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale. Therapeutic overkill or elegant management for selected patients at risk? Circulation. 1992;86(6):2013-2015 (editorial.)
deBelder MA, Lovat LB, Tourikis L, Leech G, Camm AJ. Limitations of tranosesophageal echocardiography in patients with focal cerebral ischaemic events. Br Heart J. 1992;67:297-303.
deBelder MA, Tourikis L, Leech G, Camm J. Risk of patent foramen ovale for thromboembolic events in all age groups. Am J Cardiol. 1992;69:1316-1320.
Demopoulos LA, Tunick PA, Bernstein NE, et al. Protruding atheromas of the aortic arch in symptomatic patients with carotid artery disease. Am Heart J. 1995;129:40-44.
DeRook FA, Comess KA, Albers GW, Popp RL. Transesophageal echocardiography in the evaluation of stroke. Ann Intern Med. 1992;117:922-932.
Dhandheria B. Transesophageal echocardiography; concise review for primary-care physicians. Mayo Clinic Proc. 1994;69:856-863.
Hanna JP, Sun JP, Furlan AJ, et al. Patent foramen ovale and brain infarct. Echocardiographic predictors, recurrence, and prevention. Stroke. 1994;25:782-786.
Homma S, DiTullio MR, Sacco RL, et al. Characteristics of patent foramen ovale associated with cryptogenic stroke. A biplane transesophageal echocardiographic study. Stroke. 1994;25:582-586.
Hung J, Lang R, Flachskampf F, et al. 3D echocardiography: a review of the current status and future directions. J. Am. Soc Echocardiography. 2007;20:213-233.
Isselbacher KJ, Braunwa E, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Fauci AS, Kasper DL. Eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 13th ed. McGraw Hill, New York 1994.
Jones EF, Calafiore P, Donnan GA, Tonkin AM. Evidence that patent foramen ovale is not a risk factor for cerebral ischemia in the elderly. Am J Cardiol. 1994;74:596-599.
Khoury AF, Afridi I, QuiZones MA, Zoghbi WA. Transesophageal echocardiography in critically ill patients: feasibility, safety, and impact on management. Am Heart J. 1994;127:1363-1371.
Kronzon I, Sugeng L, Perk G, et al. Real-time 3D-transesophageal echocardiography in the evaluation of post-operative mitral annuloplasty ring and prosthetic valve dehiscence. Submitted for publication October 2008.
Kronzon I, Tunick PA. Transesophageal echocardiography as a tool in the evaluation of patients with embolic disorders. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1993;36(1):39-60.
Lindower PD, Gutterman DD. Detection of cardioembolic sources with echocardiography. Comprehensive Therapy 1994. 20(3):174-180.
Louie EK, Konstadt SN, Rao TLK, Scanlon PJ. Transesophageal echocardiographic diagnosis of right to left shunting across the foramen ovale in adults without prior stroke. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993;21:1231-1237.
Lucas C, Goullard L, Marchau Jr M, et al. Higher prevalence of atrial septal aneurysms in patient with ischemic stroke of unknown cause. Acta Neurol Scand. 1994;89:210-213.
Mitusch R, Stierle U, Tepe C, et al. Systemic embolism in aortic arch atheromatosis. Dur Heart J. 1994;15:1373-1380.
Mügge A, Daniel WG, Haverich A, Lichtlen PR. Diagnosis of noninfective cardiac mass lesions by two-dimensional echocardiography. Comparison of the transthoracic and transesophageal approaches. Circulation. 1991;83:70-78.
Otto, Catherine M. Textbook of clinical echocardiography. 2nd ed., W.B. Saunders Co., 2000.
Pearlman AS. Detecting prosthetic valve dysfunction. ACCEL. 1995; 27(10):tape B, side 3 (interview with Holmes, Jr DR.)
Pearson AC, Nagelhout D, Castello R, et al. Atrial septal aneurysm and stroke: a transesophageal echocardiographic study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991;18:1223-1229.
Pepi M, Tamborini G, Maltagliati A, et al. Head-to-head comparison of two-and three-dimensional transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in the localization of mitral valve prolapse, J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:2524-2530.
Perk G, Lang RM, Garcia-Fernandez MA, et al. Transcatheter interventions use of real time three dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in intracardiac catheter based interventions. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 2009;22(8).
Petty GW, Orencia AJ, Khandheria BK, Whisnant JP. A Population-based study of stroke in the setting of mitral valve prolapse; risk factors and infarct subtype classification. Mayo Clin Proc. 1994;69:632-634.
Sansoy V, Abbott RD, Jayaweera AR, Kaul S. Low yield of transthoracic echocardiography for cardiac source of embolism. Am J Cardiol. 1995;75:166-169.
Stratton JR, Lighty, Jr GW, Pearlman AS, Ritchie JL. Detection of left ventricular thrombus by two-dimensional echocardiography: sensitivity, specificity, and causes of uncertainty. Circulation. 1982;66:156-166.
Sugeng L, Shernan SK, Salgo IS, et al. Live 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography initial experience using the fully-sampled matrix array probe. J Amer Coll Cardiol. 2008;52(6):446-9.
Sugeng L, Shernan SK, Weinert L, et al. Real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography in valve disease: comparison with surgical findings and Evaluation of prosthetic valves. J Am Soc Echocardiography. 2008;21:1347–1354.
Wiet SP, Pearce WH, McCarthy WJ, et al. Utility of transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of disease of the thoracic aorta. J Vasc Surg. 1994;20:613-620.
Sources reviewed for reconsideration request of July 17, 2017:
Hahn RT. State of the art review of echocardiographic imaging in the evaluation and treatment of functional tricuspid regurgitation. Circ Cardiovascular Imaging. 2016;9:1-15.
Hahn RT. Transcatheter valve replacement and valve repair: review of procedures and intraprocedural echocardiographic imaging. Circulation Research. 2016:341-356.
Hahn RT, Abraham T, Adams MS, et al. Guidelines for performing a comprehensive transesophageal echocardiographic examination: recommendations from the American Society of Echocardiography and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists. Journal of Amer Soc. of Echocardiog. 2013;26:921-964.
Lang RM, Badano LP, Tsang W, et al. EAE/ASE recommendations for image acquisition and display using three-dimensional echocardiography. Journal of Amer Soc. of Echocardiog. 2012;25:3-46.
Rodes-Cabau J, Hahn RT, Latib A, et al. Transcatheter therapies for treating tricuspid regurgitation. JACC. 2016;67(15):1829-1845.
Rudski LG, Lai WW, Afilalo J, et al. Guidelines for the echocardiographic assessment of the right heart in adults: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2010;23:685-713.
Zoghbi WA, Adams D, Bonow RO, et al. Recommendations for noninvasive evalulation of native valvular regurgitation. Journal of Amer Soc. of Echocardiog. 2017;30(4):303-371.