Local Coverage Determination (LCD)

Pressure Reducing Support Surfaces - Group 3

L33692

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Contractor Information

LCD Information

Document Information

LCD ID
L33692
LCD Title
Pressure Reducing Support Surfaces - Group 3
Proposed LCD in Comment Period
N/A
Source Proposed LCD
N/A
Original Effective Date
For services performed on or after 10/01/2015
Revision Effective Date
For services performed on or after 05/01/2021
Revision Ending Date
N/A
Retirement Date
N/A
Notice Period Start Date
N/A
Notice Period End Date
N/A
AMA CPT / ADA CDT / AHA NUBC Copyright Statement

CPT codes, descriptions and other data only are copyright 2020 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Applicable FARS/HHSARS apply.

Fee schedules, relative value units, conversion factors and/or related components are not assigned by the AMA, are not part of CPT, and the AMA is not recommending their use. The AMA does not directly or indirectly practice medicine or dispense medical services. The AMA assumes no liability for data contained or not contained herein.

Current Dental Terminology © 2020 American Dental Association. All rights reserved.

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CMS National Coverage Policy

CMS Pub. 100-03, (Medicare National Coverage Determinations Manual), Chapter 1, Section 280.8

Coverage Guidance

Coverage Indications, Limitations, and/or Medical Necessity

For any item to be covered by Medicare, it must 1) be eligible for a defined Medicare benefit category, 2) be reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis or treatment of illness or injury or to improve the functioning of a malformed body member, and 3) meet all other applicable Medicare statutory and regulatory requirements.

The purpose of a Local Coverage Determination (LCD) is to provide information regarding “reasonable and necessary” criteria based on Social Security Act § 1862(a)(1)(A) provisions.

In addition to the “reasonable and necessary” criteria contained in this LCD there are other payment rules, which are discussed in the following documents, that must also be met prior to Medicare reimbursement:

  • The LCD-related Standard Documentation Requirements Article, located at the bottom of this policy under the Related Local Coverage Documents section.

  • The LCD-related Policy Article, located at the bottom of this policy under the Related Local Coverage Documents section.

  • Refer to the Supplier Manual for additional information on documentation requirements.

  • Refer to the DME MAC web sites for additional bulletin articles and other publications related to this LCD.

For the items addressed in this LCD, the “reasonable and necessary” criteria, based on Social Security Act § 1862(a)(1)(A) provisions, are defined by the following coverage indications, limitations and/or medical necessity.

An air-fluidized bed is covered only if all of the following criteria are met:

  1. The beneficiary has a stage 3 (full thickness tissue loss) or stage 4 (deep tissue destruction) pressure ulcer (Refer to the ICD-10 codes in the LCD-related Policy Article for applicable diagnoses).

  2. The beneficiary is bedridden or chair bound as a result of severely limited mobility.

  3. In the absence of an air-fluidized bed, the beneficiary would require institutionalization.

  4. The air-fluidized bed is ordered in writing by the beneficiary’s treating practitioner based upon a comprehensive assessment and evaluation of the beneficiary after completion of a course of conservative treatment designed to optimize conditions that promote wound healing. The evaluation generally must be performed within one month prior to initiation of therapy with the air-fluidized bed.

  5. The course of conservative treatment must have been at least one month in duration without progression toward wound healing. This month of prerequisite conservative treatment may include some period in an institution as long as there is documentation available to verify that the necessary conservative treatment was rendered. Conservative treatment must include:

    1. Frequent repositioning of the beneficiary with particular attention to relief of pressure over bony prominences (usually every 2 hours); and

    2. Use of a Group 2 support surface to reduce pressure and shear forces on healing ulcers and to prevent new ulcer formation; and

    3. Necessary treatment to resolve any wound infection; and

    4. Optimization of nutrition status to promote wound healing; and

    5. Debridement by any means, including wet-to-dry gauze dressings, to remove devitalized tissue from the wound bed; and

    6. Maintenance of a clean, moist bed of granulation tissue with appropriate moist dressings protected by an occlusive covering, while the wound heals.

In addition, conservative treatment should generally include:

    1. Education of the beneficiary and caregiver on the prevention and management of pressure ulcers; and

    2. Assessment by a physician, nurse, or other licensed healthcare practitioner at least weekly, and

    3. Appropriate management of moisture/incontinence.

An occlusive barrier is required, when necessary, to maintain a moist wound-healing environment that may otherwise be compromised by the drying action of airflow generated by air-fluidized therapy. If moist dressings are NOT required because of the wound characteristics (e.g. heavily exudative wound, etc.), the occlusive barrier is not required as a condition for reimbursement.

Wet-to-dry dressings when used for debridement do not require an occlusive dressing. Use of wet-to-dry dressings for wound debridement, begun during the period of conservative treatment and which continue beyond 30 days will not preclude coverage of an air-fluidized bed. Should additional debridement again become necessary while a beneficiary is using an air-fluidized bed (after the first 30-day course of conservative treatment) that will not cause the air-fluidized bed to be denied.

  1. A trained adult caregiver is available to assist the beneficiary with activities of daily living, fluid balance, dry skin care, repositioning, recognition and management of altered mental status, dietary needs, prescribed treatments, and management and support of the air-fluidized bed system and its problems such as leakage.

  2. A treating practitioner directs the home treatment regimen, and reevaluates and recertifies the need for the air-fluidized bed on a monthly basis.

  3. All other alternative equipment has been considered and ruled out.


An air-fluidized bed will be denied as not reasonable and necessary under any of the following circumstances:

  1. The beneficiary has coexisting pulmonary disease (the lack of firm back support makes coughing ineffective and dry air inhalation thickens pulmonary secretions);

  2. The beneficiary requires treatment with wet soaks or moist wound dressings that are not protected with an impervious covering such as plastic wrap or other occlusive material;

  3. The caregiver is unwilling or unable to provide the type of care required by the beneficiary on an air-fluidized bed;

  4. Structural support is inadequate to support the weight of the air-fluidized bed system (it generally weighs 1600 pounds or more);

  5. Electrical system is insufficient for the anticipated increase in energy consumption; or

  6. Other known contraindications exist.

Payment is not included for the caregiver or for architectural adjustments such as electrical or structural improvement.

The continued coverage of an air-fluidized bed as reasonable and necessary must be documented by the treating practitioner every month. Continued use of an air fluidized bed is covered until the ulcer is healed or, if healing does not continue, there is documentation to show that: (1) other aspects of the care plan are being modified to promote healing, or (2) the use of the bed is reasonable and necessary for wound management.

If the stated coverage criteria for an air-fluidized bed are not met, the claim will be denied as not reasonable and necessary.

GENERAL

A Standard Written Order (SWO) must be communicated to the supplier before a claim is submitted. If the supplier bills for an item addressed in this policy without first receiving a completed SWO, the claim shall be denied as not reasonable and necessary.

For Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and Supplies (DMEPOS) base items that require a Written Order Prior to Delivery (WOPD), the supplier must have received a signed SWO before the DMEPOS item is delivered to a beneficiary. If a supplier delivers a DMEPOS item without first receiving a WOPD, the claim shall be denied as not reasonable and necessary. Refer to the LCD-related Policy Article, located at the bottom of this policy under the Related Local Coverage Documents section.

For DMEPOS base items that require a WOPD, and also require separately billed associated options, accessories, and/or supplies, the supplier must have received a WOPD which lists the base item and which may list all the associated options, accessories, and/or supplies that are separately billed prior to the delivery of the items. In this scenario, if the supplier separately bills for associated options, accessories, and/or supplies without first receiving a completed and signed WOPD of the base item prior to delivery, the claim(s) shall be denied as not reasonable and necessary.

An item/service is correctly coded when it meets all the coding guidelines listed in CMS HCPCS guidelines, LCDs, LCD-related Policy Articles, or DME MAC articles. Claims that do not meet coding guidelines shall be denied as not reasonable and necessary/incorrectly coded.

Proof of delivery (POD) is a Supplier Standard and DMEPOS suppliers are required to maintain POD documentation in their files. Proof of delivery documentation must be made available to the Medicare contractor upon request. All services that do not have appropriate proof of delivery from the supplier shall be denied as not reasonable and necessary.

Summary of Evidence

N/A

Analysis of Evidence (Rationale for Determination)

N/A

Coding Information

CPT/HCPCS Codes

Group 1

Group 1 Paragraph

The appearance of a code in this section does not necessarily indicate coverage.

HCPCS MODIFIER:

EY – No physician or other licensed health care provider order for this item or service

GA – Waiver of liability statement issued as required by payer policy, individual case

GZ – Item or service expected to be denied as not reasonable and necessary

KX - Requirements specified in the medical policy have been met

HCPCS CODES:

Group 1 Codes
CodeDescription
E0194 AIR FLUIDIZED BED

General Information

Associated Information

DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS

Section 1833(e) of the Social Security Act precludes payment to any provider of services unless "there has been furnished such information as may be necessary in order to determine the amounts due such provider". It is expected that the beneficiary’s medical records will reflect the need for the care provided. The beneficiary’s medical records include the treating practitioner's office records, hospital records, nursing home records, home health agency records, records from other healthcare professionals and test reports. This documentation must be available upon request.

GENERAL DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS

In order to justify payment for DMEPOS items, suppliers must meet the following requirements:

  • SWO

  • Medical Record Information (including continued need/use if applicable)

  • Correct Coding

  • Proof of Delivery

Refer to the LCD-related Standard Documentation Requirements article, located at the bottom of this policy under the Related Local Coverage Documents section for additional information regarding these requirements.

Refer to the Supplier Manual for additional information on documentation requirements.

Refer to the DME MAC web sites for additional bulletin articles and other publications related to this LCD.


POLICY SPECIFIC DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS

Items covered in this LCD have additional policy-specific requirements that must be met prior to Medicare reimbursement.

Refer to the LCD-related Policy article, located at the bottom of this policy under the Related Local Coverage Documents section for additional information.


Miscellaneous


Appendices

The staging of pressure ulcers used in this policy is as follows (National Pressure Injury Advisory Panel, 2019 Revision):

Stage 1 Pressure Injury: Non-blanchable erythema of intact skin
Intact skin with a localized area of non-blanchable erythema, which may appear differently in darkly pigmented skin. Presence of blanchable erythema or changes in sensation, temperature, or firmness may precede visual changes. Color changes do not include purple or maroon discoloration; these may indicate deep tissue pressure injury.

Stage 2 Pressure Injury: Partial-thickness skin loss with exposed dermis
Partial-thickness loss of skin with exposed dermis. The wound bed is viable, pink or red, moist, and may also present as an intact or ruptured serum-filled blister. Adipose (fat) is not visible and deeper tissues are not visible. Granulation tissue, slough and eschar are not present. These injuries commonly result from adverse microclimate and shear in the skin over the pelvis and shear in the heel. This stage should not be used to describe moisture associated skin damage (MASD) including incontinence associated dermatitis (IAD), intertriginous dermatitis (ITD), medical adhesive related skin injury (MARSI), or traumatic wounds (skin tears, burns, abrasions).

Stage 3 Pressure Injury: Full-thickness skin loss
Full-thickness loss of skin, in which adipose (fat) is visible in the ulcer and granulation tissue and epibole (rolled wound edges) are often present. Slough and/or eschar may be visible. The depth of tissue damage varies by anatomical location; areas of significant adiposity can develop deep wounds. Undermining and tunneling may occur. Fascia, muscle, tendon, ligament, cartilage and/or bone are not exposed. If slough or eschar obscures the extent of tissue loss this is an Unstageable Pressure Injury.

Stage 4 Pressure Injury: Full-thickness skin and tissue loss
Full-thickness skin and tissue loss with exposed or directly palpable fascia, muscle, tendon, ligament, cartilage or bone in the ulcer. Slough and/or eschar may be visible. Epibole (rolled edges), undermining and/or tunneling often occur. Depth varies by anatomical location. If slough or eschar obscures the extent of tissue loss this is an Unstageable Pressure Injury.

Unstageable Pressure Injury: Obscured full-thickness skin and tissue loss
Full-thickness skin and tissue loss in which the extent of tissue damage within the ulcer cannot be confirmed because it is obscured by slough or eschar. If slough or eschar is removed, a Stage 3 or Stage 4 pressure injury will be revealed. Stable eschar (i.e. dry, adherent, intact without erythema or fluctuance) on the heel or ischemic limb should not be softened or removed.

Deep Tissue Pressure Injury: Persistent non-blanchable deep red, maroon or purple discoloration Intact or non-intact skin with localized area of persistent non-blanchable deep red, maroon, purple discoloration or epidermal separation revealing a dark wound bed or blood filled blister. Pain and temperature change often precede skin color changes. Discoloration may appear differently in darkly pigmented skin. This injury results from intense and/or prolonged pressure and shear forces at the bone-muscle interface. The wound may evolve rapidly to reveal the actual extent of tissue injury, or may resolve without tissue loss. If necrotic tissue, subcutaneous tissue, granulation tissue, fascia, muscle or other underlying structures are visible, this indicates a full thickness pressure injury (Unstageable, Stage 3 or Stage 4). Do not use DTPI to describe vascular, traumatic, neuropathic, or dermatologic conditions.


Utilization Guidelines

Refer to Coverage Indications, Limitations and/or Medical Necessity

Sources of Information
N/A
Bibliography

N/A

Revision History Information

Revision History DateRevision History NumberRevision History ExplanationReasons for Change
05/01/2021 R7

Revision Effective Date: 05/01/2021
COVERAGE INDICATIONS, LIMITATIONS, AND/OR MEDICAL NECESSITY:
Revised: Roman to Arabic numerals in staging scheme
APPENDICES:
Revised: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel to National Pressure Injury Advisory Panel 2019 guidelines (unchanged from 2016 guidelines)

03/18/2021: Pursuant to the 21st Century Cures Act, these revisions do not require notice and comment because they are due grammatical or non-substantive changes.

  • Provider Education/Guidance
  • Other
01/01/2020 R6

Revision Effective Date: 01/01/2020
COVERAGE INDICATIONS, LIMITATIONS AND/OR MEDICAL NECESSITY:
Removed: Statement to refer to ICD-10 Codes that are Covered section in the LCD-related PA
Added: Statement to refer to ICD-10 code list in the LCD-related Policy Article
Revised: “attending physician” to “treating practitioner”
Revised: “physician” to “treating practitioner”
Revised: Order information as a result of Final Rule 1713
CODING INFORMATION:
Removed: Field titled “Bill Type”
Removed: Field titled “Revenue Codes”
Removed: Field titled “ICD-10 Codes that Support Medical Necessity”
Removed: Field titled “ICD-10 Codes that DO NOT Support Medical Necessity”
Removed: Field titled “Additional ICD-10 Information”
GENERAL DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS:
Revised: Prescriptions (orders) to SWO

02/27/2020: Pursuant to the 21st Century Cures Act, these revisions do not require notice and comment because they are due to non-discretionary coverage updates reflective of CMS FR-1713.

  • Provider Education/Guidance
  • Other
01/01/2019 R5

Revision Effective Date: 01/01/2019
COVERAGE INDICATIONS, LIMITATIONS, AND/OR MEDICAL NECESSITY:
Removed: Statement to refer to diagnosis code section below
Added: Refer to Covered ICD-10 Codes in the LCD-related Policy Article
ICD-10 CODES THAT SUPPORT MEDICAL NECESSITY:
Moved: All diagnosis codes to the LCD-related Policy Article diagnosis code section per CMS instruction
ICD-10 CODES THAT DO NOT SUPPORT MEDICAL NECESSITY:
Moved: Statement about noncovered diagnosis codes moved to LCD-related Policy Article noncovered diagnosis code section per CMS instruction

  • Other (ICD-10 code relocation per CMS instruction)
01/01/2017 R4 Revision Effective Date: 01/01/2017
COVERAGE INDICATIONS, INDICATIONS, LIMITATIONS AND/OR MEDICAL NECESSITY:
Removed: Standard Documentation Language
Added: New reference language and directions to Standard Documentation Requirements
Added: General Requirements
DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS:
Removed: Standard Documentation Language
Added: General Documentation Requirements
Added: New reference language and directions to Standard Documentation Requirements
POLICY SPECIFIC DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS:
Removed: Standard Documentation Language
Added: Direction to Standard Documentation Requirements
Removed: Physician statement requirement under Miscellaneous (moved to related PA)
Removed: Supplier Manual reference from Miscellaneous
Removed: PIM reference from Appendices
Revised: Pressure ulcer staging criteria per NPUAP 2016 Staging Consensus Conference under Appendices
RELATED LOCAL COVERAGE DOCUMENTS:
Added: LCD-related Standard Documentation Requirements article
  • Provider Education/Guidance
07/01/2016 R3 Revision Effective Date: 07/01/2016
COVERAGE INDICATIONS, LIMITATIONS AND/OR MEDICAL NECESSITY:
Revised: Standard Documentation language - ACA requirements (Effective 04/28/2016)
DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS:
Revised: Standard Documentation language for ACA requirements; added New order requirements and Correct coding instructions; revised Proof of delivery instructions (Effective 04/28/2016)
  • Provider Education/Guidance
07/01/2016 R2 Effective July 1, 2016 oversight for DME MAC LCDs is the responsibility of CGS Administrators, LLC 18003 and 17013 and Noridian Healthcare Solutions, LLC 19003 and 16013. No other changes have been made to the LCDs.
  • Change in Assigned States or Affiliated Contract Numbers
10/01/2015 R1 Revision Effective Date: 10/31/2014
COVERAGE INDICATIONS, LIMITATIONS AND/OR MEDICAL NECESSITY:
Revised: Standard Documentation Language to add covered prior to a beneficiary’s Medicare eligibility
Added: Standard Documentation Language for detailed written order
DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS:
Revised: Standard Documentation Language to add who can enter date of delivery date on the POD
Added: Instructions for Equipment Retained from a Prior Payer
Revised: Repair to beneficiary-owned DMEPOS
  • Provider Education/Guidance

Associated Documents

Attachments
N/A
Related National Coverage Documents
N/A
Public Versions
Updated On Effective Dates Status
03/11/2021 05/01/2021 - N/A Currently in Effect You are here
02/21/2020 01/01/2020 - 04/30/2021 Superseded View
Some older versions have been archived. Please visit the MCD Archive Site to retrieve them.

Keywords

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