This bibliography presents those sources that were obtained during the development of this policy. CGS Administrators, LLC is not responsible for the continuing viability of Web site addresses listed below.
Appleyard M, Fireman Z, Glukhovsky A, et al. A randomized trial comparing wireless capsule endoscopy with push enteroscopy for the detection of small-bowel lesions. Gastroenterology. 2000;119:1431-1438.
Appleyard M, Glukhovsky A, Swain P. Wireless-capsule diagnostic endoscopy for recurrent small-bowel bleeding. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:232-233.
Armstrong D, Marshall JK, Chiba N, et al. Canadian Consensus Conference on the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease in adults - update 2004. Can J Gastroenterol. 2005;19:15-35.
Barkay O, Moshkowitz M, Fireman Z, et al. Initial experience of videocapsule endoscopy for diagnosing small-bowel tumors in patients with GI polyposis syndromes. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;62:448-452.
Boivin ML, Lochs H, Voderholzer WA. Does passage of a patency capsule indicate small-bowel patency? A prospective clinical trial? Endoscopy. 2005;37:808-815.
Catanzaro A, Faulx A, Isenberg GA, et al. Prospective evaluation of 4-mm diameter endoscopes for esophagoscopy in sedated and unsedated patients. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;57:300-304.
D'Amico G, Pagliaro L, Bosch J. Pharmacological treatment of portal hypertension: an evidence-based approach. Semin Liver Dis. 1999;19:475-505.
De Franchis R, Eisen GM, Eliakim R, et al. Esophageal capsule endoscopy (Pillcam ESO) is comparable to traditional endoscopy for detection of esophageal varices-An international Multi-center trial. 2007. Ref Type: (Unpublished Work). Presented at 2007 Digestive Week Scientific Meeting, Washington, D.C.
Dellon ES, Shaheen NJ. Does screening for Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus prolong survival? J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:4478-4482.
Desmond AN, O'Regan K, Curran C, et al. Crohn's disease: factors associated with exposure to high levels of diagnostic radiation. Gut. 2008;57(11):1489-1490.
DeVault KR, Castell DO. Updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:190-200.
Eisen GM, Baron TH, Dominitz JA, et al. Complications of upper GI endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;55:784-793.
Eisen GM, Eliakim R, Zaman A, et al. The accuracy of PillCam ESO capsule endoscopy versus conventional upper endoscopy for the diagnosis of esophageal varices: a prospective three-center pilot study. Endoscopy. 2006;38:31-35.
Eliakim R, Sharma VK, Yassin K, et al. A prospective study of the diagnostic accuracy of PillCam ESO esophageal capsule endoscopy versus conventional upper endoscopy in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux diseases. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2005;39:572-578.
Gay G, Delvaux M, Laurent V, et al. Temporary intestinal occlusion induced by a "patency capsule" in a patient with Crohn's disease. Endoscopy. 2005;37:174-177.
Goldfarb NI, Pizzi LT, Fuhr JP, et al. Diagnosing crohn's disease: an economic analysis comparing wireless capsule endoscopy with traditional diagnostic procedures. Disease Management. 7(4):292-304.
Grace ND, Groszmann RJ, Garcia-Tsao G, et al. Portal hypertension and variceal bleeding: an AASLD single topic symposium. Hepatology. 1998;28:868-880.
Hahne M, Adamek HE, Schilling D, Riemann JF. Wireless capsule endoscopy in a patient with obscure occult bleeding. Endoscopy. 2002;34:588-590.
Hampel H, Abraham NS, El-Serag HB. Meta-analysis: obesity and the risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:199-211.
Herrerias JM, Leighton JA, Costamanga, G, et al. Agile patency system eliminates risk of capsule retention in patients with known intestinal strictures who undergo capsule endoscopy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 2008:1-8.
Idezuki Y. General rules for recording endoscopic findings of esophagogastric varices (1991). Japanese Society for Portal Hypertension. World J Surg. 1995;19:420-422.
Kamath PS. Esophageal variceal bleeding: primary prophylaxis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3:90-93.
Leighton JA, Goldstein J, Hirota W, et al. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;58:650-655.
Leighton JA, Shen B, Baron TH, et al. ASGE guideline: endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006;63:558-565.
Lewis, BS. Expanding role of capsule endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(26):4137-4141.
Lewis BS, Eisen GM, Friedman S. A pooled analysis to evaluate results of capsule endoscopy trials. Endoscopy. 2005;37(10):960-965.
Maieron A, Hubner D, Blaha B, et al. Multicenter retrospective evaluation of capsule endoscopy in clinical routine. Endoscopy. 2004;36:864-868.
Marmo R, Rotondano G, Piscopo R, et al. Capsule endoscopy versus enteroclysis in the detection of small-bowel involvement in Crohn's disease: a prospective trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3:772-776.
Marmo R, Rotondano G, Piscopo R, Bianco MA, Cipolletta L. Meta-analysis: capsule endoscopy vs. conventional modalities in diagnosis of small bowel diseases. Ailment Pharmcol Ther. 2005;22:595-604.
Mata A, Bordas JM, Feu F, et al. Wireless capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: a comparative study with push enteroscopy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004;20:189-194.
Merkel C, Zoli M, Siringo S, et al. Prognostic indicators of risk for first variceal bleeding in cirrhosis: a multicenter study in 711 patients to validate and improve the North Italian Endoscopic Club (NIEC) index. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95:2915-2920.
Mishkin DS, Chuttani R, Croffie J, et al. ASGE Technology Status Evaluation Report: wireless capsule endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2006;63:539-545.
Olliver JR, Hardie LJ, Gong Y, et al. Risk factors, DNA damage, and disease progression in Barrett's esophagus. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:620-625.
Prediction of the first variceal hemorrhage in patients with cirrhosis of the liver and esophageal varices. A prospective multicenter study. The North Italian Endoscopic Club for the Study and Treatment of Esophageal Varices. N Engl J Med. 1988;319:983-989.
Qureshi W, Adler DG, Davila R, et al. ASGE Guideline: the role of endoscopy in the management of variceal hemorrhage, updated July 2005. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;62:651-655.
Reliability of endoscopy in the assessment of variceal features. The Italian Liver Cirrhosis Project. J Hepatol. 1987;4:93-98.
Rex DK, Cummings OW, Shaw M, et al. Screening for Barrett's esophagus in colonoscopy patients with and without heartburn. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:1670-1677.
Sampliner RE. Updated guidelines for the diagnosis, surveillance, and therapy of Barrett's esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:1888-1895.
Sharma P, Sidorenko EI. Are screening and surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus really worthwhile? Gut. 2005;54 Suppl 1:i27-i32.
Tatar EL, Shen EH, Palance AL, Sun JH, Pitchumoni CS. Clinical utility of wireless capsule endoscopy: experience with 200 cases. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;40:140-144.
The role of endoscopy in the management of GERD: guidelines for clinical application. From the ASGE. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 1999;49:834-835.
Triester SL, Leighton JA, Leontiadis GI, et al. A meto-analysis of the yield of capsule endoscopy compared to other diagnostic modalities in patients with non-stricturing small bowel crohn's disease. Am J Gastoenterol. 2006;101:954-964.
Veldhuyzen van Zanten SJ, Bradette M, Chiba N, et al. Evidence-based recommendations for short- and long-term management of uninvestigated dyspepsia in primary care: an update of the Canadian Dyspepsia Working Group (CanDys) clinical management tool. Can J Gastroenterol. 2005;19:285-303.
Westhoff B, Brotze S, Weston A, et al. The frequency of Barrett's esophagus in high-risk patients with chronic GERD. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;61:226-231.
Wildi SM, Glenn TF, Woolson RF, Wang W, Hawes RH, Wallace MB. Is esophagoscopy alone sufficient for patients with reflux symptoms? Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;59:349-354.
Winters C, Jr., Spurling TJ, Chobanian SJ, et al. Barrett's esophagus. A prevalent, occult complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology. 1987;92:118-124.
Zoli M, Merkel C, Magalotti D, Marchesini G, Gatta A, Pisi E. Evaluation of a new endoscopic index to predict first bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1996;24:1047-1052.
Other Medicare contractor policies consulted in development of the draft:
- AdminaStar Federal fiscal intermediary LCD (Illinois [L13708], Indiana [L13707], Kentucky [L13709], Ohio [L13710])
- Associated Hospital Services fiscal intermediary LCDs (Maine [L23048], Massachusetts [L23050])
- Anthem Health Plans of New Hampshire fiscal intermediary LCD [L22853]
- Empire Medicare Services carrier LCD (New Jersey [L4244], New York [L3589])