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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood whereas the body does not produce enough insulin or the insulin that is produced is ineffective. The blood sugar level may be monitored by the patient at various frequencies. The high blood glucose levels can sometimes be controlled with diet and exercise alone but may also require the use of insulin or other medications. The main goal of diabetes management is to control blood glucose levels and thereby to prevent the complications of diabetes. Diabetes when not well controlled is a leading cause of adult blindness, lower-limb amputation and kidney disease. The hemoglobin A1C test is a blood test that measures average blood glucose control over a three-month period that helps to identify longer-term trends in glucose levels and where adjustments in treatment are needed.
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