Local Coverage Determination (LCD)

Autonomic Function Testing

L36236

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Proposed LCD
Proposed LCDs are works in progress that are available on the Medicare Coverage Database site for public review. Proposed LCDs are not necessarily a reflection of the current policies or practices of the contractor.

Document Note

Note History

Contractor Information

LCD Information

Document Information

Source LCD ID
N/A
LCD ID
L36236
Original ICD-9 LCD ID
Not Applicable
LCD Title
Autonomic Function Testing
Proposed LCD in Comment Period
N/A
Source Proposed LCD
N/A
Original Effective Date
For services performed on or after 10/01/2015
Revision Effective Date
For services performed on or after 09/12/2019
Revision Ending Date
N/A
Retirement Date
N/A
Notice Period Start Date
06/25/2015
Notice Period End Date
09/30/2015
AMA CPT / ADA CDT / AHA NUBC Copyright Statement

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Issue

Issue Description
Issue - Explanation of Change Between Proposed LCD and Final LCD

CMS National Coverage Policy

Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, Section 1833 (e). This section states that no payment shall be made to any provider for any claims that lack necessary information to process the claim.

Title XVIII of the Social Security Act section 1862 (a)(1)(A). This section allows coverage and payment of those services that are considered to be medically reasonable and necessary.

Title XVIII of the Social Security Act section 1862 (a)(7). This section excludes routine physical examinations and services.

CMS Manual System, Pub 100-08, Medicare Program Integrity Manual, Chapter 3, Part 3.2.3 Requesting Addition Documentation During Prepayment and Post-payment review.

42 CFR Section 410.32(a) indicates diagnostic tests are payable only when the physician who is treating the beneficiary for a specific medical problem uses the results in such treatment.

Coverage Guidance

Coverage Indications, Limitations, and/or Medical Necessity

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates physiologic processes, such as blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, digestion, metabolism, fluid and electrolyte balance, sweating, urination, defecation, sexual response, and other processes. Regulation occurs without conscious control, i.e., autonomously. The ANS has two major divisions: the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. ANS testing measures alterations in the R-R interval of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in response to parasympathetic and sympathetic system stimulation. The aim of such testing is to correlate signs and symptoms of possible autonomic dysfunction with objective measurement in a way that is clinically useful. Many organs are controlled primarily by either the sympathetic or parasympathetic system, although they may receive input from both; occasionally, functions are reciprocal (e.g., sympathetic input increases heart rate; parasympathetic decreases it).

The sympathetic nervous system is catabolic and activates fight-or-flight responses. Thus, sympathetic output increases heart rate and contractility, bronchodilation, hepatic glycogenolysis and glucose release, BMR (basal metabolism rate), and muscular strength; it also causes sweaty palms. Less immediately-life-preserving functions (e.g., digestion, renal filtration) are decreased.

The parasympathetic nervous system is anabolic; it conserves and restores. Gastrointestinal secretions and motility (including evacuation) are stimulated, heart rate is slowed, and blood pressure decreases.

Disorders of the ANS can affect any system of the body; they can originate in the peripheral or central nervous system and may be primary or secondary to other disorders. Symptoms suggesting autonomic dysfunction include orthostatic hypotension, heat intolerance, nausea, constipation, urinary retention or incontinence, nocturia, impotence, and dry mucous membranes. If a patient has symptoms suggesting autonomic dysfunction, cardiovagal, adrenergic, and sudomotor tests are usually done to help determine severity and distribution of the dysfunction.

ANS testing can be grouped into three general categories:

  1. Cardiovagal innervation - a test that provides a standardized quantitative evaluation of vagal innervation to parasympathetic function of the heart. Responses are based on the interpretation of changes in continuous heart recordings in response to standardized maneuvers and include heart rate response to deep breathing, Valsalva ratio, and 30:15 ratio heart rate responses to standing. A tilt table may be used, but is not required.
  2. Vasomotor adrenergic innervation - evaluates adrenergic innervation of the circulation and of the heart in autonomic failure. The following tests are included: beat-to-beat blood pressure and R-R interval response to Valsalva maneuver, sustained hand grip, and blood pressure and heart rate responses to tilt-up or active standing and must be performed with a tilt table.
  3. Sudomotor - function testing is used to evaluate and document neuropathic disturbances that may be associated with pain. The quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART), thermoregulatory sweat test (TST), sympathetic skin responses, and silastic sweat imprints are tests of sympathetic cholinergic sudomotor function.

Indications:

Tests are useful in defining the presence of autonomic failure, their natural history, and response to treatment. They can also define patterns of dysautonomia that are useful in helping the clinician diagnose certain autonomic conditions. Selective autonomic failure (which only one system is affected) can be diagnosed by autonomic testing. An example is chronic idiopathic anhidrosis, where only sudomotor function is affected. Among the synucleinopathies, autonomic function tests can distinguish Parkinson’s disease (PD) from multiple system atrophy (MSA). There is a gradation of autonomic failure. PD is characterized by mild autonomic failure and a length-dependent pattern of sudomotor involvement. MSA and pure autonomic failure have severe generalized autonomic failure while Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is intermediate.

Syndromes of autonomic dysfunction which require formal autonomic function testing are relatively rare. Generally, only after excluding more common causes of autonomic signs or symptoms (e.g., hypotension, hyperhidrosis, and orthostatic tachycardia) may formal autonomic testing be indicated to exclude or confirm rarer autonomic disorders. Autonomic function testing is covered as reasonable and necessary when used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate symptoms indicative of vasomotor instability and the ANS testing is directed at establishing a more accurate or definitive diagnosis or contributing to clinically useful and relevant medical decision making for one of the following indications:

  1. To diagnose the presence of autonomic neuropathy in a patient with signs or symptoms suggesting a progressive autonomic neuropathy.
  2. To evaluate the severity and distribution of a diagnosed progressive autonomic neuropathy.
  3. To differentiate the diagnosis between certain complicated variants of syncope from other causes of loss of consciousness.
  4. To evaluate inadequate response to beta blockade in vasodepressor syncope.
  5. To evaluate distressing symptoms in a patient with a clinical picture suspicious for distal small fiber neuropathy in order to diagnose the condition.
  6. To differentiate the cause of postural tachycardia syndrome.
  7. To evaluate change in type, distribution or severity of autonomic deficits in patients with autonomic failure.
  8. To evaluate the response to treatment in patients with autonomic failure who demonstrate a change in clinical exam.
  9. To diagnose axonal neuropathy or suspected autonomic neuropathy in the symptomatic patient.
  10. To evaluate and treat patients with recurrent unexplained syncope or demonstrate autonomic failure, after more common causes have been excluded by other standard testing.

Limitations:

The following indications are considered not medically reasonable and necessary and will not be covered:

  1. Screening patients without signs or symptoms of autonomic dysfunction, including patients with diabetes, hepatic or renal disease.
  2. Testing for the sole purpose of monitoring disease intensity or treatment efficacy in diabetes, hepatic or renal disease.
  3. Testing results that are not used in clinical decision-making or patient management.
  4. Testing performed by physicians who do not have evidence of training, and expertise to perform and interpret these tests. Physicians must have knowledge, training, and expertise to perform and interpret these tests, and to assess and train personnel working with them. This training and expertise must have been acquired within the framework of an accredited residency and/or fellowship program or must reflect extensive continued medical education activities. If these skills have been acquired by way of continued medical education, the courses must be comprehensive, offered, sponsored or endorsed by an academic [institution] in the United States and/or by the applicable specialty/subspecialty society in the United States, and designated by the American Medical Association (AMA) as category I credit or the American Osteopathic Association (AOA).
  5. General professional standards with FDA clearance apply for all equipment used in ANS testing.
  6. Testing with ANSAR ANX 3.0 or a similar machine is considered investigational for screening and will not be covered.

Equipment for Autonomic Nervous System Studies:

Equipment with FDA clearance for heart rate variability measurements in response to paced respirations and exercises that tests only heart rate variability does not meet the full range of testing parameters required for testing of autonomic nervous system function; cardiovagal innervation and vasomotor adrenergic innervation, and does not ensure full test requirements, such as blood pressure monitoring and blood oxygen levels; nor do they incorporate proper testing conditions, such as the use of a tilt table. Providers may be asked to supply information on the equipment used to perform autonomic nervous system studies, to ensure that all studies performed meet the requirements of the procedure.

Summary of Evidence

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Analysis of Evidence (Rationale for Determination)

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Proposed Process Information

Synopsis of Changes
Changes Fields Changed
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Associated Information
Sources of Information
Bibliography
Open Meetings
Meeting Date Meeting States Meeting Information
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Contractor Advisory Committee (CAC) Meetings
Meeting Date Meeting States Meeting Information
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MAC Meeting Information URLs
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Proposed LCD Posting Date
Comment Period Start Date
Comment Period End Date
Reason for Proposed LCD
Requestor Information
This request was MAC initiated.
Requestor Name Requestor Letter
View Letter
N/A
Contact for Comments on Proposed LCD

Coding Information

Bill Type Codes

Code Description
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Revenue Codes

Code Description
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CPT/HCPCS Codes

Group 1

Group 1 Paragraph

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Group 1 Codes

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ICD-10-CM Codes that Support Medical Necessity

Group 1

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Group 1 Codes:

N/A

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ICD-10-CM Codes that DO NOT Support Medical Necessity

Group 1

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Additional ICD-10 Information

General Information

Associated Information
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Sources of Information

Other Contractor LCD (Wisconsin Physicians Service) (LCD ID L35174) which includes the following sources:

Gunal D, Afsar N, Tanridag T, Aktan S. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: correlation with disease-related parameters. European Neurology [serial online]. 2002;48(1):1-5.

Illigens, Ben M W, and Christopher H Gibbons. "Sweat testing to evaluate autonomic function." Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal Of The Clinical Autonomic Research Society. 2009;19(2):79-87.

Iodice V, Lipp A, Low P, et al. Autopsy confirmed multiple system atrophy cases: Mayo experience and role of autonomic function tests. Journal Of Neurology, Neurosurgery, And Psychiatry [serial online]. 2012;83(4):453-459. Available from: MEDLINE Complete, Ipswich, MA.

Low PA, Tomalia VA, Park KJ. Autonomic function tests: some clinical applications. Journal of Clinical Neurology [serial online]. 2013;9(1):1–8. Published online 2013 January 2013.9.1.1

Keet S, Bulte C, Boer C, Bouwman R. Reproducibility of non-standardised autonomic function testing in the pre-operative assessment screening clinic. Anaesthesia [serial online]. 2011;66(1):10-14.

Riley D, Chelimsky T. Autonomic nervous system testing may not distinguish multiple system atrophy from Parkinson's disease. Journal Of Neurology, Neurosurgery, And Psychiatry [serial online]. 2003;74(1):56-60.

Wang A, Fealey R, Gehrking T, Low P. Patterns of neuropathy and autonomic failure in patients with amyloidosis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings [serial online]. 2008;83(11):1226-1230.

Zygmunt A, Stanczyk J. Methods of evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. Archives of Medical Science. 2010;6(1):11–18.

Bibliography

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Revision History Information

Revision History Date Revision History Number Revision History Explanation Reasons for Change
09/12/2019 R5

Consistent with Change Request 10901, all coding information, National coverage provisions, and Associated Information (Documentation Requirements, Utilization Guidelines) have been removed from the LCD and placed in the related Billing and Coding Article, A57024. There has been no change in coverage with this LCD revision.

  • Revisions Due To Code Removal
10/01/2017 R4

Due to the annual ICD-10-CM code update, ICD-10-CM code E85.8 was deleted from the "ICD-10-CM Codes that Support Medical Necessity" section of the LCD. ICD-10-CM codes E85.81, E85.82 and E85.89 were added as the replacement codes.

DATE (10/01/2017): At this time, the 21st Century Cures Act will apply to new and revised LCDs that restrict coverage which requires comment and notice. This revision is not a restriction to the coverage determination; and, therefore not all the fields included on the LCD are applicable as noted in this policy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Revisions Due To ICD-10-CM Code Changes
10/01/2015 R3 ICD-10-CM codes E08.21, E08.40, E08.41, E08.42, E08.43, E08.51, E09.42, E10.40, G20 and G99.0 were added to Group 1 in the “ICD-10-CM Codes that Support Medical Necessity” section.
  • Other (Added Ten (10) ICD-10-CM Codes)
10/01/2015 R2 ICD-10-CM codes E11.40, E13.40, G60.9 and G62.9, were added to Group 1 in the “ICD-10-CM Codes that Support Medical Necessity” section.
  • Other
10/01/2015 R1 Minor template language change.
  • Other
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Associated Documents

Attachments
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Related National Coverage Documents
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Public Versions
Updated On Effective Dates Status
09/06/2019 09/12/2019 - N/A Currently in Effect You are here
Some older versions have been archived. Please visit the MCD Archive Site to retrieve them.

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