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National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)


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National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

Years Survey Included Sexual and Gender Minority
(SGM)-related Questions

2009-Present

Young girl dressed in a black sweater with a sad expression on her face.

Survey Description

The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) is conducted through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Office on Smoking and Health. The NATS establishes a comprehensive framework for evaluating both the national and state-specific tobacco control programs. The survey was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use among adults. There are 10 topics addressed which include susceptibility to cigarette smoking initiation, cessation behaviors/quit attempts, risk perception, and social influences.

Ultimately, the NATS was designed to yield data representative and comparable at both national and state levels. Furthermore, the sample design aims to provide national estimates for subgroups defined by gender, age, and race/ethnicity.

The SGM questions are a core component of the questionnaire under the ‘Closing Questions’ section.

Survey Sample Population

The survey population for NATS is non-institutionalized adults ages 18 years and older residing in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The sample design is a dual-frame Random Digit Dialing (RDD) sample, with independent samples drawn from landline and cell phone frames.

The NATS 2013−2014 used a non-overlapping design, where the cell phone frame was used only to find households that were cell-phone only (i.e., households that rely exclusively on cell phones because they do not have a landline to use for receiving calls). The samples from each frame were also disproportionately stratified by state to ensure adequate representation of each state, as well as higher numbers of completed surveys from states with larger populations. A total of 1,649,040 phone numbers were sampled through the RDD process, including 1,057,053 landline numbers and 591,987 cell phone numbers. Interviews were not conducted with adults living in group quarters. Group quarters (GQ) are places where people live or stay, in a group living arrangement, which is owned or managed by an entity or organization providing housing and/or services for the residents.

Survey Mode

The survey is conducted annually, but this is dependent on funding. The mode for this survey is computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). This survey is designed to be a stratified, random-digit dialed telephone survey of adults with interviews conducted in English and Spanish, on both landlines and cell phones. A respondent may answer up to 130 questions based on his/her tobacco use status. In the 2013-2014 administration year of the NATS survey, the Quality Assurance (QA) monitoring team included the project manager, data collection manager, and call center supervisors and QA assistants. Interviewer monitoring is primarily conducted by QA assistants. QA assistants monitor interviews by listening in on interviewers’ telephone lines and using the CATI system’s monitoring module to follow the course of the interview on a computer screen.

SGM-Related Survey Questions

Sexual Identity

(SEXUALORIENT1)

Do you think of yourself as...?

[If R is female then Lesbian or] Gay Straight, that is, not [If R is female then Lesbian or] gay Bisexual
Something else Respondent does not understand responses (Don’t Know/Not Sure)
(Refused) (Not ascertained)

[If R selects “Something else” in SEXUALORIENT1] (SEXUALORIENT2)

By something else, do you mean that...

You are not straight, but identify with another label such as queer, trisexual, omnisexual or pansexual You are transgender, transsexual or gender variant You have not figured out your sexuality or are in the process of figuring it out
You do not think of yourself as having sexuality You do not use labels to identify yourself You made a mistake and did not mean to pick this answer
You mean something else (Don’t Know/Not Sure) (Inapplicable)
(Not ascertained)

[If R selects “You mean something else” in SEXUALORIENT2] (SEXUALORIENT3)

You gave “Don’t know” as an answer. Is that because...

You don’t understand the words You understand the words, but you have not figured out your sexuality or you are in the process of figuring it out You mean something else
(Don’t Know/Not Sure) (Refused) (Inapplicable)
(Not ascertained)

[If R selects “You mean something else” in SEXUALORIENT3] (SEXUALORIENT_OTH)

Please tell me what you mean by “something else”?

Open ended
Question History: These are the only versions of the questions that have been used.

The question used in the 2009-2010 survey was: (SEXUALORIENT)

Do you consider yourself to be...?

Heterosexual, or straight Gay or lesbian Bisexual
Transgender Other (specify) Respondent does not understand responses
(Don’t know/Not sure) (Refused)

Sexual Attraction

There are currently no questions asked in this category.

Sexual Behavior

There are currently no questions asked in this category.

Gender Identity

(GENDERB)

What sex were you at birth? (90)

Male Female
(Don’t know/Not sure) (Refused)
(Not ascertained)

(GENDER)

Do you currently consider yourself to be: (91)

Male Female
(Don’t know/Not sure) (Refused)
(Not ascertained)
Question History: This is the only version of the question that has been used.

Household Relationships

There are currently no questions asked in this category.

Response Rates

In the 2013-2014 survey administration, there were 52,594 completed surveys in the landline sample and 22,639 completed surveys in the cell sample. Complete surveys totaled 75,233. The overall response rate was 36.1 percent. The landline response rate was 47.6 percent and the cell phone response rate was 17.1 percent. The following link provides information on the response rates tables that can be found in the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey: Sample Design and Methodology Summary:
https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/surveys/nats/pdfs/2012-2013-nats-methodology-final.pdf

The NATS reports response rates and cooperation rates by state and totals. The following link provided the response rate tables which can be found in the Sample Design and Methodology Reports under each survey year.
https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/surveys/nats/

Survey Links

Questionnaires

These questionnaires can be accessed under the main page for the NATS, organized by year. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/surveys/nats/

Data

Data can be accessed on the main page for the NATS, organized by year. The datasets are in SAS format and can be downloaded via a Zip file. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/surveys/nats/

General Information

All information on the NATS can be found on this website. This resource can also be found under the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) topic of ‘Smoking & Tobacco Use’, under ‘Data and Statistics’ and ‘Surveys’.
https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/surveys/nats/

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Office on Smoking and Health. Table of Surveys Brochure. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/surveys/nats/index.htm

2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) Sample Design and Methodology Report. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/surveys/nats/pdfs/2014-methodology-report-tag508.pdf

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