CMS announced the publication of proposed regulations aimed at assuring the competency of those conducting the most common screening test for cervical cancer, the Papanicolaou (Pap) test. The proposed rule would update the current regulations implementing a statutory mandate that physicians (pathologists) and cytotechnologists (laboratory technologists with special training in cytology) who screen Pap tests to periodically demonstrate their proficiency in examining and interpreting proficiency testing samples. The proposed rule (74 FR 3263) was published on January 16, 2009. Public comments will be accepted until March 17, 2009. We encourage comments from the State Survey Agencies, CMS Regional Offices, and the general public.